SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.24 issue3Working conditions and health of prison officers in Paraná (Brazil)Impact of oral comorbidities on incarcerated women: an integrative review author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  


Services on Demand




Related links

  • On index processCited by Google
  • Have no similar articlesSimilars in SciELO
  • On index processSimilars in Google


Revista Española de Sanidad Penitenciaria

On-line version ISSN 2013-6463Print version ISSN 1575-0620

Rev. esp. sanid. penit. vol.24 n.3 Barcelona Sep./Dec. 2022  Epub Jan 12, 2023 


What has been written about burnout syndrome in prison officers?

¿Qué se ha escrito sobre el síndrome de agotamiento en trabajadores penitenciarios?

Sandra Milena Franco-Idárraga1 

1Universidad de Caldas. Manizales. Colombia



Working with prison inmates involves constant contact with a stigmatized population, in hostile conditions where the working environment facilitates burnout syndrome among prison workers. The objective of this study is to carry out a bibliographic review to find pioneering and current publications, recognize the authors specializing in the subject and identify the most common findings of their research.

Material and method:

The tree of science (ToS) reference search method was used, which applies an analysis of data networks to find the most relevant scientific articles on a specific topic, in this case burnout syndrome. This tool shows the results in the form of a tree, where the root is formed by the classic publications, the trunk for the ones that have shaped the subject and the leaves are the most recent articles.


We found 140 published documents. The ToS selected 92 articles. The studies contained in the three parts of the ToS were analyzed; some of the determining factors were related to organizational structure, participation in decision-making, satisfaction and commitment to work, and lack of service and programs to help with depression or other mental conditions.


Some factors related to the work that these workers do, combined with the organizational shortages present in prisons, impose stress that leads to burnout syndrome in these employees. To reduce the syndrome, structural changes are needed in the institutions, as well as the strengthening of personal and professional skills and the social integration of prison workers.

Key words: burnout syndrome; psychological burnout; mental health; occupational health; prisons



El trabajo con personas privadas de la libertad involucra el contacto con una población estigmatizada en condiciones hostiles, esto favorece la incidencia de sufrir el síndrome de agotamiento. El objetivo de este estudio es la realización de revisión bibliográfica para conocer publicaciones pioneras y actuales, reconocer a los autores especialistas en el tema y los hallazgos encontrados en sus investigaciones.

Material y método:

Se empleó el método de búsqueda de referencias del árbol de la ciencia (ToS, tree of science), que aplica un análisis de redes de datos para hallar artículos científicos relevantes, en este caso, el síndrome de agotamiento. Esta arroja resultados en forma de árbol, donde la raíz está formada por publicaciones clásicas, el tronco, por las que dan forma al tema, y las hojas son los artículos más recientes.


Se encontraron 140 documentos publicados, y el ToS seleccionó 92 artículos. Se analizaron los estudios contenidos en las tres partes del árbol de ToS, algunos factores determinantes fueron estructura organizacional, participación en la toma de decisiones, satisfacción y compromiso con el trabajo, como también la falta de servicio y programas para la atención de la depresión u otras afecciones mentales.


Algunos factores relacionados con la labor que estos trabajadores cumplen, junto con la falta organizacional que los centros penitenciarios presentan, producen un estrés que favorece el síndrome de agotamiento profesional en estos empleados. Para la disminución del síndrome, se necesitan cambios estructurales en las instituciones, así como el fortalecimiento de las habilidades personales y profesionales y la integración social de trabajadores penitenciarios.

Palabras clave: síndrome de agotamiento; agotamiento psicológico; salud mental; salud ocupacional; prisiones


Prison staff are responsible for the control, custody and application of restrictive confinement measures, they have the difficult task of re-socialising offenders to ensure that they can live in society without putting their or other people's lives at risk1.

The hostile conditions in the work setting predispose staff to illness, including mental issues, cardiovascular diseases2 and substance abuse, making work in such settings even more difficult. Employees have problems with developing a positive professional identity that can help them to maintain their self-esteem, even when they are persons with a high professional reputation3.

Political and economic variables, budget shortages, casual labour and corruption have also been identified as other structural factors that have a direct impact on the prevalence of burnout syndrome among prison workers4.

The mental health issues found among prison staff include the incidence of homicide, suicide, occupational accidents, difficulties with sleeping, anxiety, social dysfunctions caused by feelings of anger with others, and depression, along with somatic problems such as high blood pressure, peptic ulcers and heart disease, suicidal ideation and suicide5,6.

Braun1 and other authors3 have warned of the high probabilities of suffering from burnout syndrome, resulting in difficulties in achieving job satisfaction. However, the consequences of burnout go beyond the workplace.

Further research is needed on burnout syndrome among prison staff, commencing with a search and analysis of the studies carried out in recent years, the most widely recognised authors and then seeing how knowledge about the syndrome among prison officers has been generated.

Therefore, the main objective of this study is to carry out a bibliographical review to discover the pioneering and current publications on burnout syndrome, and find authors who specialise in the subject and identify the most common pathologies found by the authors in their research.

Material and method

The Virtual Health Library and its descriptors in health sciences (DeCS) were used to verify the terms accepted in the medical field studied in this review. A search strategy was then designed with different word combinations in English. These were: "burnout syndrome", "emotional burnout", "prison guards", "prison staff", "correctional officers"; while terms in Spanish included, "síndrome de agotamiento", "síndrome de burnout", "guardia de prisión", "guardia carcelario".

The Boolean operators "AND", "OR" were applied, using the MedLine base and its descriptors of medical subjects (MeSH, medical subject headings) to find the most common key words in use. The Thomson Reuters Web of Science (WoS) data base was consulted in June 2020, with a search range in time for the tool of 20 standard years.

The search code TS = (burnout AND correctional officer) was used with the most popular terms obtained in MedLine, to obtain the necessary bibliographical references and download them in text format (.txt), and use these to create the tree of science with the Tree of Science. This web tool uses graph theory to select scientific articles7, and build an information tree, placing the classic articles in the roots, the ones that give structure to knowledge about the subject in the trunk, and the most recent articles in the leaves8.

The tree was obtained by uploading the downloaded bibliographical information in text format to the Tree of Science website (available at:, where ToS has inclusion criteria, such as articles with main search terms in English: burnout syndrome and correctional officers. The software also applies the exclusion criteria by selecting articles that are repeated or do not include the selected key words.

Results and analysis

A total of 140 bibliographical references were obtained from the MedLine data base. The ToS criteria selected 90 articles to form the tree of references and excluded the other 50 (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Shape of references tree with the Tree of Science web tool. 

The articles include five that were published in the 1980s, while 6.17% and 2.46% were published in 1996 and 1998, respectively; 14 were published in the 2000s (17.28%) and 74.07%, (62 articles) were published between 2010 and 2020.

The most notable author in the review was professor Eric G. Lambert, who was identified in all the sections of the tree as the principal author or co-author. Professor Lambert has specialised in criminal justice, prisons and correctional officers since 1999.

Root of tree

The predominant factors in the studies that made up the root of the tree (Table 1) were identified as stress and overwork among prison officers (Table 2), which were attributed to supervision at work, and the organisational structure and climate9,10, which affected the commitment of prison staff to their job11. These factors have been identified in more extensive occupational literature.

Table 1. Articles extracted from the roots of the references tree with the Tree of Science. 

Cullen, FT. (1985). Justice Q, 2. Gerstein, LH. (1987). Crim Justice Behav, 14, 352.
Triplett, R. (1996). J Crim Just, 24, 291-308. Dollard, MF. (1998). J Occup Health Psychol, 3, 243.
Cheek, FE. (1983). J Crim Just, 11, 105. Lambert, EG. (2004). Prison J, 84, 208.
Whitehead, JT. (1986). J Res Crime Delinq, 23, 23. Maslach, C. (1982). Burnout Cost Caring.
Maslach, C. (1981). J Occup Behav, 2, 99. Hurst, T. (1997). Am J Crim Justice, 22, 121.
Annstrong, GS. (2004). J Crim Just, 32, 577. Carlson, JR. (2006). J Offender Rehabil, 43, 19.
Finney, C. (2013). Bmc Public Health, 13. Whitehead, JT. (1989). Burnout Probation Co.
Lindquist, CA. (1986). J Offender Counselli, 10, 5. Griffin, ML. (2001). J Crim Just, 29, 219.
Maslach, C. (2001). Annu Rev Psychol, 52, 397. Finn, P. (1998). Fed Probat, 62, 65.
Vanvoorhis, P. (1991). J Res Crime Delinq, 28, 472. Lambert, EG. (2005). J Crim Just, 33, 165.

Table 2. Predisposing factors found in the roots of the references tree with the Tree of Science web tool. 

Predisposing factors related to supervision, job structure and organisational climate
Stress and overwork
Interpersonal relationships
Labour relations
Job performance

Maslach et al.12 showed individual stress within a organisational context that is broader than the relationship between people and their work. Likewise, Whitehead and Lindquist13 found that administrative processes cause distress to officers, while direct contact with inmates does not.

Annstrong and Griffin14 also found differences between prison officers and healthcare staff, and the personal and environmental precursors for stress in these two groups.

Maslach and Jackson15 applied a scale to measure burnout syndrome in a number of human service professions, the result of which was the subscales of burnout, depersonalisation and personal fulfilment. Cheek and Di Stefano16 also found consequences for physical health, emotional and interpersonal relationships and occupational performance. On the other hand, Carlson et al.17 stated that prison officer show greater feelings of personal achievement.

Tree trunk

A review of the studies in the tree trunk (Table 3), showed the most prevalent factors associated with the job (Table 4) are overwork, demanding social contacts and low social status18, along with a lack of commitment, little participation in decision making, work satisfaction and perceived danger19.

Table 3. Articles extracted from the trunk of the references tree with the Tree of Science web tool. 

Griffin, ML. (2012). Crim Justice Behav, 39(9), 1131. Lambert, EG. (2010). Crim Justice Behav, 37(11).
Schaufeli, WB. (2000). Int J Stress Manage, 7(1), 19. Garland, B. (2004). Prison J, 84(4), 452.
Harizanova, S. (2020). Work, 65(1), 71-77. Viotti, S. (2016). Work, 53(4), 871.
Keinan, G. (2007). Crim Justice Behav, 34(3), 380. Mitchell, O. (2000). Justice Q, 17(2), 333.
Cieslak, R. (2008). Pers Indiv Differ, 45(7), 666. Kinman, G. (2017). Occup Med-Oxford, 67(6), 456.
Morgan, RD. (2002). Crim Justice Behav, 29(2), 144. Lambert, EG. (2010). Prison J, 90(1), 94-114.
Useche, SA. (2019). PLoS One, 14(2). Farnese, ML. (2017). Work, 58(3), 319.
Oliveira, RV. (2016). Work, 55(1), 215.
Brough, P. (2007). Crim Justice Behav, 34(4), 553. Lambert, EG. (2012). Crim Justice Behav, 39(7), 938.
Kinman, G. (2016). Int J Workplace Heal, 9(3), 290.
Dowden, C. (2004). J Crim Just, 32(1), 31. Lambert, EG. (2015). Sage Open, 5(2).

Table 4. Predisposing factors found in the trunk of the references tree with the Tree of Science web tool. 

Stress producing factors related to the job
Lack of commitment.
Little participation in decision making.
Job satisfaction.
Perceived danger.
Little experience and more responsibility at work.
Perceived lack of administrative support.
Contact with inmates.

Morgan et al.20 also commented that less experience and more responsibilities at work create higher levels of depersonalisation, emotional burnout and low personal fulfilment. Other factors found by Garland21 were a perceived lack of administrative support and contact with inmates. Lamber et al.22 studied different dimensions of burnout, and found that each one was influenced by some kind of social support.

Brough and Williams23 found a considerable lack of attention to complaints by prison officers. They concluded that improvements need to be made in training supervisors and in the measures to deal with complaints. Griffin et al.24 also concluded that work burnout is damaging to officers and the organisation, and that there is a growing need to provide job stability to prison officers.

Leaves of the tree

The leaves of the tree (Table 5) included data analysis studies. Jaegers et al.25 identified predictors of depression in their study, which was found to be high among prison officers and was strongly influenced by burnout at work, above other health indicators. Ricciardelli et al.26 found barriers such as lack of medical benefits, low salaries and shift work, which impeded access to mental health services.

Table 5. Articles extracted from the leaves of the references tree with the Tree of Science web tool. 

Ricciardelli, R. (2020). Front Psychol, 11. Wagenfeld, A. (2018). Occup Ther Ment Heal, 34(3), 285. Shepherd, BR. (2019). J Occup Health Psych, 24(4), 438. Wooldredge, J. (2016). Prison J, 96(4), 576. Brough, P. (2015). Stress Health, 31(2), 138.
Rania, N. (2020). Prison J, 100(6), 747. Lambert, EG. (2018). Secur J, 31(2), 618. Reeves, DW. (2012). Crim Justice Behav, 39(10), 1361. Lambert, EG. (2020). Psychiat Psychol Law, 27(4), 558. Halsey, M. (2017). Prison J, 97(1), 52.
Choi, J. (2020). Crim Justice Behav, 47(7), 905. Lambert, EG. (2017). J Appl Sec Res, 12(3), 337. Law, FM. (2016). Int J Offender Ther, 60(11), 1257. Jaegers, LA. (2020). Prison J, 100(2), 240. Lambert, EG. (2019). Int Crim Justice Rev, 29(4), 361.
Tohochynskyi, O. (2020). Postmod Open, 11(2), 161. Wooldredge, J. (2016). J Crim Law Crim, 106(1), 125. Eide, HMK. (2019). J Prison Educ Reentr, 6(3), 316. Hogan, NL. (2017). Crim Justice Stud, 30(4), 421. Lambert, EG. (2018). J Crime Justice, 41(1), 98.
Viotti, S. (2017). G Ital Med Lav Ergon, 39(4), 240. Worley, RM. (2019). Deviant Behav, 40(8), 1007. Holloway, ED. (2019). Eur J Probat, 11(2), 72. Walker, EJ. (2018). Int J Offender Ther, 62(14), 4528. Esposito, F. (2015). Bmc Int Health Hum R, 15.
Ricciardelli, R. (2021). J Foren Psychol Res, 21(1), 40. Vogel, J. (2020). Front Psychiatry, 11. Holt, TJ. (2017). J Crime Justice, 40(1), 34. Jin, XH. (2018). Int J Offender Ther, 62(2), 551. Dodd, S. (2020). Crim Justice Behav, 47(9), 1190.
Isenhardt, A. (2019). Crim Justice Behav, 46(10), 1405. Kowalski, MA. (2020). Prison J, 100(1), 98. Kras, KR. (2019). Crim Justice Behav, 46(3), 475. Schiff, M. (2019). Crim Justice Behav, 46(1), 136. Cho, S. (2020). Curr Psychol, 39(5), 1521.
Piotrowski, A. (2020). Int J Env Res Pub He, 17(21). Blanco-Álvarez, TM. (2017). Rev Costarric Psicol, 36(1), 45. Lin, YS. (2017). Asian J Criminol, 12(3), 217. Jin, XH. (2018). Int J Law Crime Just, 52, 36. Suliman, N. (2018). Crim Justice Behav, 45(5), 628.
Botek, M. (2019). J E Eur Manag Stud, 24(4), 545. Lambert, EG. (2020). Soc Sci J, 57(4), 405. Hernández-Martín, L. (2006). Int J Clin Hlth Psyc, 6(3), 599. Ricciardelli, R. (2020). Int J Env Res Pub He, 17(13). Schlosser, LZ. (2010). Psychol Serv, 7(1), 34.
Kinman, G. (2019). Prison J, 99(3), 363. Liu, JH. (2020). Int J Offender Ther, 64(8), 791. Valentine, C. (2012). J Fam Violence, 27(6), 531. Lambert, EG. (2017). Int J Offender Ther, 61(16), 1892. Bademci, HO. (2016). Psychodyn Pract, 22(4), 351.

Blanco-Álvarez and Thoen27 found that occupational stress was significantly related to stress, anxiety and depression, but was not linked to burnout. (Table 6)

Table 6. Factors found in the leaves of the references tree with the Tree of Science web tool. 

Predictive factors of fatigue, anxiety and depression.
Lack of medical benefits, low salaries and shift work impede access to mental health services.
Stress, anxiety and depression.
Ambiguity and overwork.

The authors found no significant differences between men and women in any variable that they studied. When considering other outcomes of burnout in prison officers, Shepherd et al.28 stated in their results that prison staff have emotional demands that are positively associated with burnout, and with alcohol use.

Jaegers et al.25 emphasise the fact that mitigating the factors of stress in the workplace and identifying specific interventions are necessary to reduce the risk of depression among prison officers.

Ricciardelli et al.26 proposed quarterly, bi-annual or annual appointments with a mental health professional, to evaluate any changes in employees' mental health. The appointments would take place outside the prison to ensure confidentiality. Team training was also proposed to reduce interpersonal conflicts at work and increase morale in an improved work setting.

Bademci et al.29 studied the before and after of a psychosocial support programme and found that it helped to reduce levels of fatigue, depression and anxiety among the prison officers who participated. At the end of the programme, participants reported greater job satisfaction, reduced emotional burnout and depersonalisation and increased personal fulfilment.


Most authors agreed that one of the triggers of stress is the performance and working environment of prisons. Tewksbury and Higgins30, and Cantisano and Domínguez31 agree in their conclusions about conflicts over occupational roles. Lambert et al.32 also add that job ambiguity and overwork are dominant factors. Dowden and Tellier19 and other authors33 identify aspects such as participation in decision making, job satisfaction and professional commitment.

Minuzzi and Kieling34 also identify lack of organisation, poor working conditions and labour relations as predisposing factors for burnout syndrome. Bracco et al.4 and other authors33-35 relate workers' distress to lack of job experience.

When considering more controversial factors in stress, Cantisano et al.31 and Hernández36 observed that psychosocial factors are important in predicting burnout syndrome. Lovell and Brown37 mention personality variables, especially neuroticism. Another factor defined as controversial is the perceived low status described by Schaufelli18 and Reagan38.

Most of the authors of the basic articles share the idea that the best way for prison staff to cope with stress is through support from family, friends and workmates. Oginska39 confirms the fact that personal and social resources and support help to reduce stress at work.

Dvoskin and Spiers40 explain the importance of acknowledging the roles played by prison staff, and that encouraging such activities is a way of reducing stress among employees.

Bracco et al.41 indicate that structural changes are needed in institutions to reduce professional burnout syndrome. Other proposed changes include strengthening personal and professional skills and the social integration of prison officers.


Interest in the health and working conditions of prison officers has increased in recent years. It is important to continue with research into this population, since they are the most valuable people in the system, and awareness of the physical and mental health conditions at work will help to determine their level of wellbeing and their performance.

Changes also need to be made in prison organisations to strengthen prison officers' personal, professional, occupational and psychological skills, and so reduce the incidence of burnout and other health issues among these employees.


1. Braun AC. Síndrome de Burnout em agentes penitenciários: Uma revisão sistemática sob a perspectiva de gênero. Estudos e Pesquisas em Psicologia. 2016;16(2):366-81. [ Links ]

2. Ghaddar A, Mateo I, Sánchez P. Occupational stress and mental health among correctional officers: A cross-sectional study. J Occup Health. 2008;50(1):92-8. [ Links ]

3. Martínez-Íñigo D, Crego A. Evaluación de una intervención para la mejora de las competencias de regulación interpersonal del afecto y el bienestar laboral en una muestra de operadores penitenciarios del Uruguay. Univ Psychol. 2017;16(3):184-98. [ Links ]

4. Bracco BL, Váldez OR, Wakeham NA, Velázquez T. Síndrome de agotamiento profesional y trabajadores penitenciarios peruanos. Una mirada cualitativa a los factores institucionales y sociales. Rev Colomb Psicol. 2019;28(1):13-28. [ Links ]

5. Tapias SÁ, Salas MI, Solórzano C. Descripción de las estadísticas de problemáticas psicosociales en guardianes penitenciarios de Colombia. Suma Psicológica. 2007;14(1):7-22. [ Links ]

6. Álvarez CP, De la Cerda NM, Tordoya ES, Arriagada HN. Depresión e ideación suicida en funcionarios de gendarmería pertenecientes a guardia armada del complejo penitenciario de ACHA Y CIP CRC. Ajayu. 2018;16(1):171-92. [ Links ]

7. Zuluaga M, Robledo S, Osorio-Zuluaga GA, Yathe L, González D, Taborda G. Metabolomics and pesticides: systematic literature review using graph theory for analysis of references. Nova. 2016;14(25):121-38. [ Links ]

8. Valencia HDS, Robledo S, Pinilla R, Duque-Menéndez ND, Olivar-Tost G. SAP Algorithm for Citation Analysis: An improvement to Tree of Science. Ing Investig. 2020;40(1):45-9. [ Links ]

9. Finney C, Stergiopoulos E, Hensel J, Bonato S, Dewa CS. Organizational stressors associated with job stress and burnout in correctional officers: a systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:82. [ Links ]

10. Triplett R, Mullings JL, Scarborough KE. Work-related stress and coping among correctional officers: Implications from organizational literature. J Crim Justice. 1996;24(4):291-308. [ Links ]

11. Lambert EG. The Impact of Job Characteristics on Correctional Staff Members. Prison J. 2004;84(2).208-27. [ Links ]

12. Maslach C, Schaufeli WB, Leiter MP. Job burnout. Annu Rev Psychol. 2001;52:397-422. [ Links ]

13. Whitehead JT, Lindquist CA. Correctional officer job burnout: A path model. J Res Crime Delinq. 1986;23(1):23-42. [ Links ]

14. Annstrong GS, Griffin ML. Does the job matter? Comparing correlates of stress among treatment and correctional staff in prisons. J Crim Justice. 2004;32(6):577-92. [ Links ]

15. Maslach C, Jackson SE. The measurement of experienced burnout. J Organ Behav. 1981;2(2):99-113. [ Links ]

16. Cheek FE, Di Stefano M. The experience of stress for correction officers: A double-bind theory of correctional stress. J Crim Justice. 1983;11(2):105-20. [ Links ]

17. Carlson JR, Anson RH, Tomas G. Correctional Officer Burnout and Stress: Does Gender Matter? Prison J. 2003;83(3):277-88. [ Links ]

18. Schaufeli WB, Peeters MC. Job stress and burnout among correctional officers: a literature Review. Int J Stress Manag. 2000;7(1):19-48. [ Links ]

19. Dowden C, Tellier C. Predicting work-related stress in correctional officers: A meta-analysis. J Crim Justice. 2004;32(1):31-47. [ Links ]

20. Morgan RD, Van Haveren RA, Pearson CA. Correctional Officer Burnout: Further Analyses. Crim Justice Behav. 2002;29(2):144-60. [ Links ]

21. Garland B. The Impact of Administrative Support on Prison Treatment Staff Burnout: An exploratory Study. Prison J. 2004;84(4):452-71. [ Links ]

22. Lambert EG, Altheimer I, Hogan NL. Exploring the Relationship Between Social Support and Job Burnout Among Correctional Staff. Crim Justice Behav. 2010;37(11):1217-36. [ Links ]

23. Brough P, Williams J. Managing occupational stress in a high-risk industry: Measuring the job demands of correctional officers. Crim Justice Behav. 2007;34(4):555-67. [ Links ]

24. Griffin ML, Hogan NL, Lambert EG, Tucker-Gail KA, Baker DN. Job Involvement, Job Stress, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment and the Burnout of Correctional Staff. Crim Justice Behav. 2010;37(2):239-55. [ Links ]

25. Jaegers LA, Matthieu MM, Werth P, Ahmad OS, Barnidge E, Vaughn MG. Stressed Out: Predictors of Depression Among Jail Officers and Deputies. Prison J. 2019;100(2):240-61. [ Links ]

26. Ricciardelli R, Carleton RN, Gacek J, Groll DL. Understanding needs, breaking down barriers: examining mental health challenges and well-being of correctional staff in Ontario, Canada. Front Psychol. 2020;11:1036. [ Links ]

27. Blanco AT, Thoen M. Factores asociados al estrés laboral en policías penitenciarios costarricenses. Rev Costarricense Psicol. 2017;36(1):45-59. [ Links ]

28. Shepherd BR, Fritz C, Hammer LB, Guros F, Meier D. Emotional demands and alcohol use in corrections: A moderated mediation model. J Occup Health Psychol. 2019;24(4):438-49. [ Links ]

29. Bademci HÖ, Karadayi FE, Pur Karabulut IG, Warfa N. Who is the helper? Who is being helped? The benefits of psychosocial support to correctional officers in Turkey. Psychodyn Practice. 2016;22(4):351-65. [ Links ]

30. Tewksbury R, Higgins GE. Prison staff and work stress: The role of organizational and emotional influences. Am J Crim Justice. 2006;30(2):247-66. [ Links ]

31. Cantisano T, Domínguez M. Ensayo de Seminario. El síndrome de Burnout y sus efectos en la salud: El papel de la ruptura de contrato psicológico en una muestra de funcionarios de prisiones españolas. Rev Mex Psicol. 2005;22(2):481-90 [ Links ]

32. Lambert EG, Hogan NL, Paoline EA, Clarke A. The Impact of Role Stressors on Job Stress, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment among Private Prison Staff. Secur J. 2005;18(4):33-50. [ Links ]

33. Rodríguez RM. Síndrome de burnout en guardianes penitenciarios, Bucaramanga, Colombia, 2013. Rev Colomb Psiquiatr. 2014;43(3):146-53. [ Links ]

34. Minuzzi TR, Kieling MJ. Prazer e sofrimento no trabalho das agentes de segurança penitenciária. Estud Psicol. 2013;18(3):527-35. [ Links ]

35. Lasky GL, Gordon BC, Srebalus DJ. Occupational stressors among federal correctional officers working in different security levels. Criminal Justice Behavior. 1986;13(3):317-27. [ Links ]

36. Hernández L, Fernández B, Ramos F, Contador I. El síndrome de burnout en funcionarios de vigilancia de un centro penitenciario. Int J Clin Heal Psychol. 2006;6(3):599-611. [ Links ]

37. Lovell B, Brown R. Burnout in U.K. Prison Officers: The Role of Personality. Prison J. 2017;97(6):713-28. [ Links ]

38. Reagan S. Occupational Stress and Coping among Irish Prison Officers: An Exploratory Examination. 2009. [Tesis]. Institute of Technology Sligo. Institute of Technology Sligo; 2009. Disponible en: ]

39. Oginska BN. The role of personal and social resources in preventing adverse health outcomes in employees of uniformed professions. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2005;18(3):233-40. [ Links ]

40. Dvoskin JA, Spiers EM. On the role of correctional officers in prison mental health. Psychiatr Q. 2004;75(1):41-59. [ Links ]

41. Bracco Bruce L, Valdez Oyague R, Wakeham Nieri A, Velázquez T. Estrategias para enfrentar el Síndrome de Agotamiento Profesional. Aportes desde la institución y los trabajadores penitenciarios peruanos. Psicoperspectivas Individuo Soc. 2018;17(3):1-13. [ Links ]

Received: May 17, 2021; Accepted: March 17, 2022

Correspondence: Sandra Milena Franco Idárraga. E-mail:

Creative Commons License This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License